THERMAL properties of foods and beverages must be known to perform the various heat transfer calculations involved in designing storage and refrigeration equipment and estimating process times for refrigerating, freezing, heating, or drying of foods and beverages. Because the thermal properties of foods and beverages strongly depend on chemical composition and temperature, and because many types of food are available, it is nearly impossible to experimentally determine and tabulate the thermal properties of foods and beverages for all possible conditions and compositions. However, composition data for foods and beverages are readily available from sources such as Holland et al. (1991) and USDA (1975). These data consist of the mass fractions of the major components found in foods. Thermal properties of foods can be predicted by using these composition data in conjunction with temperature-dependent mathematical models of thermal properties of the individual food constituents.