Learn more about techniques and the science behind refrigeration systems

Understand the stages of Season, Storage, and Sale for each vegetable and fruits in Bangladesh and Thailand from our charts.

Custom-engineered ammonia (R-717) refrigeration systems often have design conditions that span a wide range of evaporating and condensing temperatures.

THERMAL properties of foods and beverages must be known to perform the various heat transfer calculations involved in designing storage and refrigeration equipment.

PRESERVATION of food is one of the most significant applica- tions of refrigeration. Cooling and freezing food effectively reduces the activity of microorganisms and enzymes, thus retarding deterioration.

THIS chapter presents information on storage requirements of many perishable foods that enter the market on a commercial scale. Also included is a short discussion on the storage of furs and fabrics. The data are based on the storage of fresh, high-quality commodities that have been properly harvested, handled, and cooled.

REFRIGERATION’S largest overall application is the preven- tion or retardation of microbial, physiological, and chemical changes in foods. Even at temperatures near the freezing point, foods may deteriorate through growth of microorganisms, changes caused by enzymes, or chemical reactions. Holding foods at low temperatures merely reduces the rate at which these changes take place. A few spoilage organisms can grow at or below temperatures at which food begins to freeze.

REFRIGERATED facilities are any buildings or sections of a building that achieve controlled storage conditions using refrigeration. Two basic storage facilities are (1) coolers that protect commodities at temperatures usually above 0°C and (2) lowtemperature rooms (freezers) operating under 0°C to prevent spoilage or to maintain or extend product life.

PRECOOLING is the rapid removal of field heat from freshly harvested fruits and vegetables before shipping, storage, or processing. Prompt precooling inhibits growth of microorganisms that cause decay, reduces enzymatic and respiratory activity, and reduces moisture loss. Thus, proper precooling reduces spoilage and retards loss of preharvest freshness and quality (Becker and Fricke 2002).

FREEZING is a method of food preservation that slows the physical changes and chemical and microbiological activity that cause deterioration in foods. Reducing temperature slows molecular and microbial activity in food, thus extending useful storage life. Although every product has an individual ideal storage temperature, most frozen food products are stored at −18 to −35°C.

AROUND the world about 4 to 5 million (0.4 million in the United States) four-legged animals such as hogs, cattle, calves, buffalo, water buffalo, lambs, sheep, goats, and deer are slaughtered each day to supply the demand for red meats and their products. The majority of these animals are slaughtered in commercial slaughterhouses (abattoirs) under supervision, although a small portion (0.08% in the United States) are still killed on the farm.

POULTRY, and broilers in particular, are the most widely grown farm animal on earth. Two major challenges face the poultry industry: (1) keeping food safe from human pathogens carried by poultry in small numbers that could multiply, sometimes to dangerous levels, during processing, handling, and meal preparation; and (2) developing environmentally sound, economical waste management facilities. Innovative engineering and refrigeration are a part of the solutions for these issues.

Fish harvested from tropical waters are reported to have a substantially longer shelf life than fish harvested from cold waters, possibly because of the bacterial flora naturally associated with the fish. Bacteria associated with fish from tropical waters are mainly gramnegative mesophiles, whereas those that cause spoilage of fish during refrigerated storage are usually gram-negative psychrophiles.

RAW milk is either processed for beverage milks, creams, and related milk products for marketing, or is used for the manufacture of dairy products. Milk is defined in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations and the Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO). Milk products are defined in 21CFR131 to 135. Public Law 519 defines butter. Note that there are many nonstandard dairy based products that may be processed and manufactured by the equipment described in this chapter.

ABOUT 69% of the table eggs produced in the United States are sold as shell eggs. The remainder are further processed into liquid, frozen, or dehydrated egg products that are used in food service or as an ingredient in food products. Small amounts of further processed eggs are converted to retail egg products, mainly mayonnaise, salad dressings, and egg substitutes.

THE most obvious losses from marketing fruit crops are caused by mechanical injury, decay, and aging. Losses in moisture, vitamins, and sugars are less obvious, but they adversely affect quality and nutrition. Rough handling and holding at undesirably high or low temperatures increase loss. Loss can be substantially reduced by greater care in handling and by following recommended storage practices.

THIS chapter covers the harvesting, handling, processing, storage requirements, and possible disorders of fresh market citrus fruit grown in Florida, California, Texas, and Arizona; of bananas; and of subtropical fruit grown in California, Florida, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico.

LOSSES (shrinkage) in marketing fresh vegetables (harvesting, handling, packing, storing, and retailing) are caused, in part, by overly high temperatures during handling, storage, and transport, which increase ripening, decay, and the loss of edible quality and nutrient values. Some cases may involve freezing or chilling injury from overly low temperatures.

CITRUS products, especially orange juice, comprise the lar- gest percentage of the total volume of juices sold in the United States. Much of the technology used in processing noncitrus juices was developed from citrus processing.

THIS chapter discusses the processes and use of refrigeration in breweries, wineries, and carbonated beverage plants.

THERE are many categories of prepared foods. This chapter covers prepared meals, fruits, vegetables, and potato products and gives an overview of the HVAC&R requirements of facilities that process these products.

THIS chapter addresses refrigeration and air conditioning as applied to bakery products, including items distributed (1) at ambient temperature, (2) refrigerated but unfrozen, and (3) frozen. Refrigeration plays an important part in modern bakery production.

IN the United States, almost 200,000 retail food stores operate their refrigeration systems around the clock to ensure proper merchandising and safety of their food products.

FOOD service requires refrigerators that meet a variety of needs. This chapter covers refrigerators available for restaurants, fastfood restaurants, cafeterias, commissaries, hospitals, schools, convenience stores, grocery stores, and other specialized applications.

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